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The impact of oral contraceptive use on bone mineral density - contraception-esc.com

The impact of oral contraceptive use on bone mineral density

The impact of oral contraceptive use on bone mineral density

M. Sojáková (1), J. Payer (2), M. Borovský(1), Z. Killinger (2), E.

Stenová (2), P. Hrúziková (2), P. Ondrejka (2)

First Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine,

Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic (1); First Department of

Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak

Republic (2)

Objectives: The aim of this pilot, cross-sectional study was to

determine the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on bone mineral density (BMD)

in pre-menopausal women, to evaluate the relation between BMD and body mass

index, and to analyze the role of potential risk factors of osteoporosis in

women with normal and decreased BMD.

Design and Methods: Fifty healthy young pre-menopausal women enrolled

into the study were divided in two groups according to the use of OC pills.

Group A (N=30) had used OC formulations containing 30 µg ethinylestradiol for

more then two years. Group B (N=20) had never used OC pills. To be eligible

women have had no personal history of chronic diseases potentially affecting

bone metabolism. All subjects underwent BMD evaluation at lumbar spine (L1-L4)

and total femur using dual x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic, Delphi). Potential

risk factors of decreased BMD were determined by a detailed questionnaire and an

interview. Statistical evaluation employed Kruskal-Wallis analysis.

Results: There were no significant differences in age, weight, body

mass index, parity, smoking status, current calcium intake, personal and family

history of fractures, and the regular use of drugs influencing bone metabolisms

in both investigated groups. The mean age of women when they started using OC

was 20.6 (range 17–25) years and the mean duration of OC use ranged between 2–7

years. No significant differences in mean lumbar spine BMD and mean total femur

BMD were determined between women who never used OC and current users of OC

pills. The mean lumbar spine and total femur BMD values significantly paralleled

body mass index in both investigated groups (P .05). Although patients with

decreased BMD values did not differ with respect to use of OC pills, they were

less likely to be involved in regular physical activity in leisure time (P=

.04).

Conclusion: Use of OC pills containing 30 µg ethinylestradiol in

healthy young women did not influence BMD at lumbar spine and total femur. There

was a significant association between body mass index and BMD in both

investigated groups. A significant correlation was found between normal and

decreased BMD values and regular physical activity in leisure time irrespective

of the use of OC.

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